The Conradian: Style Conventions
The Conradian


Submissions to The Conradian should follow the style conventions of the current issue of the journal. As a general rule, submissions should conform to the most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, to which the journal makes some modifications. Questions related to usage should refer to Fowler's Modern English Usage.

Punctuation and Spelling

The journal uses the so-called "Oxford comma" (thus, "A, B, and C" not "A, B and C") and uses double inverted commas not single ones (thus, "Heart of Darkness", not 'Heart of Darkness'). For citations, the use of three spaced points indicate an ellipsis in the original text; three unspaced points indicate an ellipsis introduced by the contributor.

Spelling should conform to The Oxford English Dictionary except for cited material, which should retain original spelling conventions. We do, however, use -ize not -ise forms for verbs, as does Cambridge University Press (thus, "realize," not "realise").

Numerals are to appear as follows throughout: 81-82 (not 81-2), 100-09 (not 100-9), 239-40 (not 239-240), and references to dates should follow the standard Continental styling of day/month/year: thus, 2 August 1900 (not the American form August 2, 1900), nor the increasingly popular 10th January.

Citing Standard Works

Citations from Conrad’s works are, unless a textual crux is involved, are, for the sake of convenience, to Dent’s Collected Edition (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1946-55) except for works published in The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Joseph Conrad . (For an up-to-date list of these, see the website of Cambridge University Press.)

When the title referred to is clear, it should not be mentioned in the round brackets giving the page number. Thus, "In Under Western Eyes, Conrad states ... (99)." And, similarly, where references to the same title are made in proximity, or the work is otherwise clear by reference to a well-known character or by context, the title need not be repeated in the parenthetical reference.

Letters are to be referenced to The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 9 vols., edited by Laurence Davies et al. (Cambridge University Press, 1983-2007 ). Citations to this work are to take the form CL0 000 and should appear in round brackets (parentheses) in the body of the essay. Where correspondent and date need to be cited if not in the essay itself, the form to be followed is as follow: (to H. G. Wells, 6 January 1900, CL2 239-40).

Neither Conrad's works nor The Collected Letters are to appear in the "Works cited" section since these editions are standard for all issues of the journal and reference to them is made in the front matter of every issue.

Citing Secondary Material

The Conradian uses a "Works cited" format together with author-date-page citations in the body of the essay. Footnotes, which should be kept to a minimum, are to be reserved for short form references to works listed in the "Works cited" section and for brief supplementary discussions.

Citations to secondary works in print in the body of the essay or in footnotes should appear thus: Surname Year: Page number. In the body of the essay this information should appear in round brackets: (Surname 2011: 000). Consult the MLA Style Guide on citing on-line sources or other non-print sources.

Emphases added in citations should take the form "emphasis added" (not "my italics"), and this should be used sparingly.

Quotations should be formulated in such as way as to avoid unsightly square brackets: thus, for example: "He said that the book 'glowed with intelligence' rather than "He said that '[t]he book glowed with intelligence.'"

References to material online in the Works cited section should provide the name of the website (where given) and the author (if any), the URL (in the following format: <>), and the date accessed (e.g., Accessed: August 2000).


The font should be Garamond 14 bold for the title, 12 for name and affiliation, and 11 for the main body of the text, which should be fully justified, and Garamond 10 for footnotes, which should likewise be justifed. A single space (not a double space) is to follow a full stop.

Punctuation should occur inside double inverted commas (thus: he said." not he said".). Colons and semi-colons go after doubled inverted commas and question marks and exclamation points go before if they are part of the quoted material and after if they are not. For further detail, see The Chicago Manual of Style.

The styling of the title and author’s name and affiliation should follow the format conventions in the current issue of the journal.

A template (as a Windows-based MS Word file) is available here and should be altered as appropriate to make a submission.

Queries about formatting should be addressed to Professor Allan H. Simmons, Editor of The Conradian email







last updated: Thursday, January 6, 2011 11:38 AM
website design by Linda Fenton Malloy